In order to enhance the security of international shipping, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) developed the International Code for the Security of Ships and Port Facilities (ISPS Code), which entered into force on 1 July 2004 as part of the International Convention of the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS).
Relying on the ISPS Code, Regulation (EC) No. 725/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 31 March 2004 on enhancing ship and port facility security was adopted, which specifies some aspects of the ISPS Code and sets out certain additional requirements.
The objective of the security measures laid down in the abovenamed legislation is prevention of emergencies caused by malicious activity and preparedness for security incidents. Specific preventive measures include access to ships and port facilities, monitoring of the security situation, inspection of cargo and the stores on board and training of personnel in security matters and conducting appropriate training exercises. A port facility is defined as a functional area in the territory of the port, which focuses on berthing but may also include a wider space. Implementation of these measures is an obligation for companies and port authorities. State agencies are involved mostly in providing appropriate guidelines for implementation of security measures, exercising supervision, organisation of information exchange and responding to security incidents.